Monday, May 25, 2020
Abstract The Revised ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Manifest Anxiety Scale is one of the most widely used self-report measures of anxiety in youth. It is used to diagnose overall anxiety in youth and also to characterize the nature of that anxiety. The purpose of revising the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Manifest Anxiety Scale (CMAS) was to shorten the administration time, increase the clarity of the items, and reduce the reading level. Reliability and validity data appear to be adequate, though the internal consistency estimates for some of the subscales of the RCMAS are rather low. While self-report measures, such as the RCMAS, appear to be good at demonstrating convergent validity, they often struggle with demonstrating discriminant validity. Further reliability and validity data is analyzed, and strengths and weaknesses of the measure are discussed. Review of the Revised ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Manifest Anxiety Scale The study of child and adolescent anxiety and depression has become an increasing concern over the past quarter of a century. With this increasing concern comes a need to establish psychometrically sound measures specifically geared toward a youth population. One of the most widely used self-report measures of anxiety in youth is the Revised ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS: Reynolds Richmond, 1979; Dadds, Perrin, Yule, 1997). The history of the RCMAS can be traced back to 1951 to TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS), which was created based on items from the Minnesota Multiphasic PersonalityShow MoreRelatedA Brief Description Of The Client1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresides in a foster home. She has difficulty with sleep and communication concerns. The foster parent reports that the client may be promiscuous, has poor hygiene, suffers from anxiety attacks and lacks anger management. Client has an IEP because of a learning disability. When residing with her bi ological parents, client s school attendance was poor, being absent from school more than 50% of the time. She has poor communication with her siblings and reports screaming and hitting her 6-year-old sisterRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Essay1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGeneralized anxiety disorder or GAD is described as excessive, exaggerated anxiety and worry about everyday life events with no logical reasons to justify it. Symptoms from this particular type of mental disorder include over exaggerated worrying and anxiety, an unrealistic view of situations in everyday life, fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, muscle tension, and more. Life becomes a constant state of worry and dread. Eventually, the anxiety overtakes the person s mindset so muchRead MoreEffects Of Divorce On The United States1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Effects of Divorce on Children Divorce is comparable to an epidemic since it has been filtering through many societies at an increasingly alarming rate. According to the most current statistic, there are more than 2.1 million marriages in the United States (Ã¢â¬Å"Children of Divorced ParentsÃ¢â¬ ). Out of those, almost half end in divorce. Divorce nowadays is extremely common. In fact, in America there is one divorce every thirty-six seconds (National Marriage and Divorce Rate TrendsÃ¢â¬ ). Each year overRead MoreThe Relationship Between Anxiety and Stuttering in Adolescents1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbetween anxiety levels and stuttering in adolescents? The answer is still unclear. Many researchers have attempted to find out whether stuttering causes anxiety or if it is vice versa. Adolescence is a very emotional time, in which teens try to fit in and create their own identity and are experiencing who they want to become. Having a speech problem only makes the phase of adolescence the more stressing and diffi cult. That is why I wanted to see if adolescents who stutter have higher anxiety levelsRead MoreAttention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1760 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in childhood and affects approximately 5% of children worldwide (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Once thought to be a disruptive behavior problem, it is now believed to be a neuropsychological disorder that results from abnormalities within the brain and manifests as functional deficits (Barkley, 1997). These deficits result in symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. Current diagnosticRead MoreThe Effects Of Parental Divorce On Children1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbetween two different households, and living with only one parent, all create a challenging environment in which to grow up and live in. However, especially for young children, parental divorce is a turning point in their life. After a divorce, the life that follows is significantly different from how life was previously. For young children, witnessing parental divorce could possibly shake trust in reliance on parents, who now act in an extremely undependable way. Divorce surgically divides the familyRead MoreObsessive Compulsive Disorder 806 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesin your writing. First discovered in the 19th Century, the neurosis of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a complex disorder consisting of obsessive thoughts often accompanied by compulsive behaviors that sufferers repeat in order to alleviate the anxiety caused by these thoughts. Discovery Prior to being seen as a legitimate mental health issue, OCD was originally thought to be a consequence of unholy behavior. Although the discovery of the disorder cannot be narrowed down beyond its major contributorsRead MoreThe Effects Of Divorce On Teens And Adolescence946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAdolescence. Every year, thousands of American children suffer through their parentÃ¢â¬â¢s divorce. Divorce hurts everyone involved, but most of the damage falls to the children to bear and can even put their lives at risk. Even though divorce has been shown to help some individuals in a miniscule amount of individual cases, over the large scale of available cases it causes a decrease in the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality of life. The changes and effects can scale anywhere from their being to effects to the effectsRead MoreAlfred Adler s Life And Life1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmedical degree from the University of Vienna, he began his medical career as a ophthalmologist. Adler examined personality and soon rejected Freud s emphasis on sex and believed personality difficulties deal with a feeling of inferiority coming from restrictions on the individual s need for self-assertion (Fisher). Josef Rattner wrote a book on Alder s life titled Alfred Alder (Literature Life) which was published in 1895. There are three very interesting things in chapter two of this wonderfulRead MoreCulture Shock Essay1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdifferent definitions this is the most explicit. While focus is maintained on sojourners and tourists, the main idea is that changing cultures can have a major impact on the way people function. Boncher tends to stick to the idea that stress and anxiety can be heavily induced not only by encountering a different culture than an individuals own, culture- shock, but also through the way the new culture treats visitors from other cultures. Kalervo Oberg in 1960 used culture- shock to describe how this
Friday, May 15, 2020
It is amazing how straightforward the answer to this question can be, but how difficult it can be to put into words. I, like many others, have written, edited, and rewritten the answer to this question over and over. Although this has proven to be a frustrating task, I appreciate that this statement has only helped reaffirm my passion and dedication for this future career that feels so tangible while at the same time is years from fruition. My answer is simple, I want to go to medical school because I want to have a career as a doctor and it is the next necessary step towards that goal. Medical school is where I will be able to gain a more thorough understanding of the human body and all that is involved in it being healthy and ill. I will also be able to hone my interpersonal and communication skills so that I can better help my future patients better understand their bodies. I know I already have a good foundation, now I just need the training medical school provides to become a gr eat physician. Although, I am not someone who has known since childhood that I wanted to be a doctor, I have always known that I needed to do something that would allow me to help others while challenging myself. I realize that while concise, my list of career must haves are not the easiest to fulfill nor does it necessarily tie me to a career as a physician. I thrive not only when helping people, but by being as busy as I can be both mentally and physically. I have had the opportunity to workShow MoreRelatedMy Career As A Doctor1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMy niece LuAnn has decided that she would like to have a career as a doctor. She is a very intelligent high-school student who is looking into her future and wants to make the right choices about her future. She has called me for advice about her pursuing a career in the medial field as a doctor. My niece LuAnn would like to find the best location for school and also a location for a medical career that goes beyond school. She knows I am taking a course in business economics and has asked me to putRead MoreMy Career As A Doctor1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMy niece LuAnn has decided that she would like to have a career as a doctor. She is a very intelligent high-school student who is looking into her future and wants to make the right choices about her future. She has called me for advice about her pursuing a career in the medial field as a doctor. My niece LuAnn would like to find the best location for school and also a location for a medical career that goes beyond school. She knows I am taking a course in business economics and has asked me to putRead MoreMy Career Choice: Doctor Essay1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAll my life IÃ¢â¬â¢ve wanted to be a doctor. IÃ¢â¬â¢d walk around my house with my plastic stethoscope and doctor bag Ã¢â¬Ëtaking careÃ¢â¬â¢ of my family. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve just always been drawn to it. I think that it also may have something to do with heredity. Both my mother and my grandmother have worked in th e hospital; my mom in the mom and baby unit, and my grandmother as a floor nurse. However, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just a theory of mine. At the moment, I plan to go to college for four years or more to become a registered nurse. Read MoreMy Future Career As A Pediatric Cardiologist Doctor Essay918 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI chose as my future career to be a pediatric cardiologist doctor. Medical field is a discourse community that resolves all physical and emotional problems. A community which gathers together to discus the level of care that each patient needs to receive in order to feel better. Doctors go through an intense medical program in college and extensive training to be able to treat the patients with the proper care. Medicine is considered an exciting profession and it provides plenty of rewards and challengesRead MoreWhy I Want to Be a Doctor1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOpening- There are about 701,200 doctors in the United States. And I could be one of them. They treat people when they are sick or hurt. They give advice to patients to help keep them from getting sick. They bandage knees, prescribe medicine, sew up cuts. They bring new babies into the world and comfort older people who are sick or dying. And what made me go into this career was that I always wanted to do something in medicine. And I thought that why not become a M.D. And medicine is somethingRead MoreMy Career As A Career800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgrow into a doctor, a fire fighter, or business owner lay a mystery in time. As I approach my time to attend college, I must choose what exactly I would study, so I could form a career out of it. In my seventeen years of life so far, I have had three predominant career choices: a neurologist, a writer, or a chemist. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always wanted to be a physician of some sorts. This aspiration began in the very beginning of my life. When I was young, I would attend doctor appointments with my mother. I wouldRead MoreProject Is Formatted Correctly Based On Our Developing Individual Interests And Personal Goals1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdraft D) Outline E) Brainstorm 3) I have read my work aloud, slowly. 4) The project improves on the following areas of compositional difficulty: I have been working hard on subject-verb agreement and using more effective words. My early drafts had both problems, but after having used BH Online, I feel confident that my final draft should be almost free of the errors that I worked hard to improve upon. Ã¢â¬Æ' I. Introduction a. When researching a career, we must create an intellectually, creatively,Read MoreMy First Year At Dunbar Middle Magnet School1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesConfused, petrified, and slightly excited were the emotions that ran through my body during this brief time in my life. Thinking back on the moments in life that assisted in me choosing my career path brings up many mixed emotions. The moment I chose the career path I wanted to go on is my first year at Dunbar Middle Magnet School, sixth grade to be exact. It was the first week of school and all the students in my class had to stand up and introduce ourselves and tell what we wanted to be in lifeRead MoreBecoming A Doctor Is Not An Easy Process For Majority Of The Population1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesothers itÃ¢â¬â¢s natural. The career I find interesting and may pursue is a Pediatrics doctor. Pediatricians are doctors who specialize in children, ranging from new born babies to eighteen years old. Individuals interested in this f ield will need a sense of mentality and dedication to work hard. Becoming a doctor is not an easy process; it takes time, motivation, and interest for this type of career. Once an individual is half way through the schooling process of becoming a doctor, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s honestly no pointRead MoreMy Interest On Medicine Stems From Family Experiences1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStatement My interest in medicine stems from family experiences. My grandmother suffered from ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease for most of her life and required constant care. Helping my grandmother with simple tasks like eating breakfast, or helping her up the stairs was a humbling experience. This experience drove my curiosity about the human anatomy, specifically the brain and how it is treated, which led to the realisation that, for me, a satisfying career would involve helping others. A career in medicine
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A pregnant womans lifestyle ultimately affects the development of her baby. Excessive exposure to alcohol during pregnancy can inflict serious, permanent physical and mental damage on her child. When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol she is making her child drink also. In knowing how Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can be prevented, what the symptoms are, and who and what make up the risk factors fetal alcohol syndrome can be better understood. The National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome states Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is the name given to a group of physical and mental birth defects that are the direct result of a womans drinking during pregnancy (NOFAS 1). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is the only disease that is oneÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The more people know about the effects of maternal drinking, the less likely they will drink while pregnant. The risks of drinking as little as one or two drinks a day may not seem like much yet they can cause a lifetime of birth defects. Symptom s of Fetal Alcohol syndrome are present not only at birth, but also during gestation. Low prenatal growth, and birth weight are common primary signs. A small head, small eye openings, droopy eye lids, a short upturned nose, thin upper lip, and small jaw are just some of the many physical abnormalities that can occur with chronic drinking. The physical birth defects are devastating yet just as much damage is unseen by the naked eye. Central nervous system defects such as Mental Retardation and behavior disorders can be seen. Poor concentration, impulsiveness and lack of judgment have a severe impact on the childs overall development. Children with behavior problems also do worse than normal children in school. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome children have problems paying attention, score lower in mathematics and spelling, and have lower I.Q scores. Not only do these defects get worse as the child ages, the vicious cycle of alcohol abuse is also very likely to continue. Fetal Alcohol syndrome children are more likely to become alcohol dependant adults than children of mothers who did not drink. All the devastating disabilities last a lifetime. Early and accurate diagnosis of Fetal AlcoholShow MoreRelatedHumanity Has Always Yielded To The Pressure Of Different1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Humanity has always yielded to the pressure of different chemical substances that eventually caused it irreparable damage. Finding the Ã¢â¬Å"CureÃ¢â¬ from the damage obtained was the next step. It seems that only now, when the number of the diseases caused by different substances has reached its peak, people have finally understood that the best Ã¢â¬Å"CureÃ¢â¬ is the prevention of any forms of substance abuse. Alcohol is not the last one on the list of theses destructive substances. It is the Ã¢â¬Å"companionÃ¢â¬ of anyRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome : Causes And Effects1078 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Alcohol plays a major role in society today. We consume alcohol for many purposes such as gatherings, holidays, or self fulfillment. One of the most frowned upon things that come with drinking in our society is drinking during pregnancy. Nonetheless, consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in pathologies for the mothers fetus leading to growth, mental, and physical birth defects, also known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The severity of the effects fromRead More Alcohol And The Fetus Essay1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessafe level of alcohol. Some people believe that drinking a little amount of alcohol will not harm the fetus. However, in reality, Ã¢â¬Å"there is no known safe level of alcohol consumption for pregnant womenÃ¢â¬ (Walsh 2). A woman runs the risk of having a child with defects if she drinks regularly (Orenberg 167). Ã¢â¬Å"Binge drinking, or heavy alcohol consumption at one sitting, is particularly hazardous to the fetus because very high levels of alcohol enter t he motherÃ¢â¬â¢s blood streamÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Fetal AlcoholÃ¢â¬ ). High levelsRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol On Human Cells1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEmily Rice BI 308-01 Professor Bilozur November 28, 2016 Alcohol-Induced Molecular Dysregulation in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursor Cells Introduction Prenatal exposure to alcohol can cause profound amounts of birth defects and mental retardation. Drinking alcohol is composed of ethanol, a flammable liquid, which is made by fermentation. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol can affect different parts of the human body such as the brain, heartRead MoreMarisa Leathers. Kathleen Mccoy. Development Of The Exceptional1537 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Marisa Leathers Kathleen McCoy Development of the Exceptional Child April 16, 2017 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Discovered in 1973, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders were recognized from a specific pattern of cardiac, craniofacial, and limb defects between unrelated infants. The one thing the infants all had in common was that they were all born to alcoholic mothers (Bradshaw). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, also referred to as FASD for short, can lead to numerous physical and mental defectsRead MoreThe Effects Of Prenatal Exposure On Alcohol1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Prenatal exposure to alcohol can cause profound amounts of birth defects and mental retardation. Drinking alcohol is composed of ethanol, a flammable liquid, which is made by fermentation. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol can affect different parts of the human body such as the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, the immune system, and plays a role in cancer (NIH, n.d.). In the brain, alcohol can intervene in communication pathways, which affectsRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesyou want your child to have FAS? Read on and I believe you will come to the same conclusion as I have about FAS. FAS doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound so bad, but in reality it is. FAS means Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. FAS is a combination of physical and mental defects first evident at a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s birth. FAS is a direct result of a woman drinking alcohol during pregnancy. These defects continue through out the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. One in five hundred children are born with FAS. Your baby is at risk no matter how much liquor youRead MoreAlcohol : Alcohol And Alcohol Essay836 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestopic for class is alcohol. Alcohol is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"Chemically, a compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl group; in common usage, a beverage made from fermented fruits, vegetables, or grains and containing ethanol.Ã¢â¬ (From the book pg GL-1) Ethanol is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"A specific alcohol compound (C2H5OH) formed from the fermentation of dietary carbohydrates and used in a variety of alcoholic beverages.Ã¢â¬ (From the book pg GL-4) Definition of proof is Ã¢â¬Å"A measure of the alcohol content of a liquid;Read MoreDrug Abuse Essay1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesturn to marijuana, prescription drugs, club drugs, alcohol, or other substances as a means of coping with stress, peer influence, and failure of parents to prevent their children from making unreasonable decisions. According to the yearly Ã¢â¬Å"Monitoring the FutureÃ¢â¬ survey of high school age teenagers in the United States, by the time our kids complete high school, a minimum of 40 percent have consumed an illicit drug and 70 percent have consumed alcohol. A. Drug addiction is defined as a chronic, oftenRead MoreDrug Safety in Pregnant Women and Their Babies1979 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesan effective barrier from any harmful pathogen that may potentially harm the fetus. The timing of exposure of any teratogen is critical to the impact of prenatal development (Bethesda (MD), 2006). The most vulnerable time of the fetus for serious damage is during early pregnancy when all the major organ and central nervous system (CNS) are developing. Miscarriages can have an important role in keeping a pregnancy from evolving when there is something serious going on with the developing fetus/embryo
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about theTaxation, Theory and Practice Law. Answer: Issue: To analyse Chilean citizen Kit's tax residency status and to guide him to get the suitable taxation treatment from his received income. Rule: The tax residency status of a tax player is discussed through section6 (1) of ITAA, 1936. In the Tax Ruling TR 98/17, many tests are available (August 2013). It significantly helps the taxpayer (ATO, 1995). These four tests are described below: 1) Domicile Test This test is applied to the people, who are having Australian domicile, but staying in any foreign countries to meet the professional or personal satisfactions. This test is mainly used to check the tax residency status of them. The major condition of an individual to satisfy this tax residency status is that under Domicile Act 1982, the particular individual should be domiciled in Australian territory (Woellner et al. 2012). It is also necessary that particular individual should continue to stay in Australian territory as per the verdict of the Federal Commissioner of Taxation v Applegate case argument. The major fact to remember in this test is that after having Australian domicile also if a person has a permanent residence in any foreign country, then also he will not be eligible for this Australian domicile test. As per the discussion of Taxation Ruling IT 2650, The Tax Commissioner added many factors to check the location and interaction of the individual on his/her permanent re sidence (Matsushita et al.2015). Those influencing factors are stated below: The degree of bifurcation between the actual and expected duration of living outside of the Australia for the individual. The willingness of the person to settle down in the foreign country. Certain activities which influence to set up the residences inn the foreign countries. The reason behind the foreign trips The frequency and the duration of those foreign tours 2) Residency Test Residency Test cannot explain the statute. Therefore, the main area to analyse such test is the verdicts (Lang 2014). In tax ruling, many statements in the relevant cases are highlighted because of this test. Certain factors are listed below: Location of the permanent home Duration of stay in Australian land as well as foreign country The frequency of visits outside of the Australia Duration of the stay, especially to the own country. Purpose and intensity of visit (personal and professional commitments) in that situation (Howieson et al. 2014). The judgement of the Levene v IRC  AC 217 case has considered it. 3) Superannuation Test The taxpayer will be treated as a tax resident in the Australian territory until the time that person will not be engaged in both the schemes, which are stated below: Public Sector Superannuation Scheme Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme. If the person meets the above-mentioned factors, then that person has the right to be known as the Australian tax resident. It can also be possible that the concerned person, who is staying outside of the Australia, is also involved in this scheme. This test is applied to the officers, who are shifted to the foreign countries under the orders of the federal government of Australia (Kenyon 2013). 4) 183-day test Under this section, it is necessary for the concerned person to stay in Australian territory for a minimum duration of 183 days, in the present financial year (Ronalds and Raper 2012). This duration of stay can be on either breaks or a continuing basis. Application: This case study shows that Kit has a permanent address in Australian territory, but he carries his Chilean citizenship. In Australia, he signed the employment contract. But due to professional commitment and certain circumferences, he has to move to Indonesian coast. Presently he is working in the Indonesian oilrig. He also has a permanent residence in Australia, where his family stays. The salary of Kit is credited into his Australian bank account, which he made as joined account with his wife. He has no other intension to stay outside of the Australia without this reason. After three months of continuous service, he gets an off for one month in this job. During this off-period, he go back to Australia to spend some quality time with his family or also opt for vacations in South America. Here, the important factor is that Kit is an Australian PR. Considering these all above mention factors, it can be told that domicile test can be applied in Kit's case. In this case, Kit has Australian domicile and carries an Australian permanent resident (PR). This is the main criteria of domicile test (Buchan 2014). Fromm the above case study, it can also be told that Kit has no plan to settle permanently outside of the Australia. In this case, it is also mentioned that he is eager to continue his staying in the Australian Territory. He maintains his joint bank account, where his salary gets credited. Therefore, it can be told that Kit fulfils all the important criteria of Domicile test. Hence, as per the section 6(5) of ITAA, 1997, he will be considered as an Australian tax resident (Maddison and Denniss 2013). According to the rules of the Australian tax law, Kit has to pay the taxes from all this income coming from both foreign and domestic land. The investment and salary income from the foreign countries will be called as ordinary incom e. Therefore, it will be taxed under ITAA provision. Conclusion: Considering all the given facts, it can be concluded that, domicile act justifies the case study of Kit. Hence, as per the Australian tax law, the investment and salary income of Kit from the foreign countries will be taxed. Issue: To analyse the nature of the earned income from selling the lands in these following cases. Californian Copper Syndicate Ltd v Harris (Surveyor of Taxes) (1904) 5 TC 159 In this case, the Californian copper company buys a land for copper mining purpose. Hence, the received income from this mining process will be called das capital income. This income is tax-free. However, in this scenario, it is seen that to get more profit, the company sold this land. Because the owner of this company is after a major profit; this only can be achieved by selling the land. After analysing these given facts, it can be stated that the profit income after selling this land will be taken as ordinary income. Hence, under tax law, this income will be taxed (Oats 2012). Scottish Australian Mining Co Ltd v FC of T (1950) 81 CLR 188- In 1942 The main reason behind purchasing of this land is mining of the coal. After a period, the owner of the company thought of selling the land for residential purpose or further business improvements. He partitioned that property into various sections and sold each section with a premium rate. In this case, the court ordered that the company couldnt utilise this land for any residential, or business or personal purpose. Because the main aim of the company is to mine the coal from this property. Hence, according to the tax law, the income coming from the selling process will be treated as ordinary income (Hattingh et al. 2013). This income will be taxed. But Court didn't accept this fact. The Court also ordered that the company have no right to sell the land. Therefore, the income will not be taxed, as the type of the income is not ordinary. FC of T v Whitfords Beach Pty Ltd (1982) 150 CLR The main aim of the owner is to get a large amount of profit by selling this land. The owner is aware of the fact that he will get huge money from selling than his investment or the land. As the company is not willing to carry this business forward, so they are planning to sell this land. The gained profit from this selling procedure will be termed as ordinary income, and it will be taxed as per Australian law section 15-15, ITAA 1997 (Chalmers et al. 2013). Statham Anor v FC of T 89 ATC 4070 The owner of this lens, as described in this case is traditionally associated with farming. But he sold some parts of the land after a certain period to achieve more profit. As the farmer has no as such idea of profit-making or creative business activity (Langton and Longbottom 2012). Hence, the profit income will be considered as capital income after selling a small amount of that land. When any land is sold, it will be considered as the realization of the valuable property. Hence, under Australian tax law, that income will go for paying tax. Casimaty v FC of T 97 ATC 5135 Casimatys father gifted him this land. He nurtured this land and fenced this land. He did not have any plan to sell that property. However, unfortunately certain crisis came to his family, like financial crisis due to the health problem. Then he was bound to sell a major part of the land, i.e. 2/3rd of the whole area. As per the general tax rule, this received income from selling this land will be taxed. But in this particular scenario, the main intention of Casimaty is not to make the profit out of this activity. This income will be considered as capital income and it will also be liable for tax purposes. Because the main aim behind selling this land is to get rid of health problems and financial loss. This profit tendency is capital and cannot be considered for tax payment (Cogan 2015). Moana Sand Pty Ltd v FC of T 88 ATC 4897 The main aim of the Moana Company is to take sand out of the lands. After spending a long time, the land became the deficit of sand quantity. Therefore, the owner of the land divided into various small parts and stated selling. Form the fact it can be said that intention of the company is to make the profit by selling the land. Therefore, this income will be considered as ordinary income and will be sent for tax payment purpose (Martin and Manwaring 2015). Crow v FC of T 88 ATC 4620 In this case, the objective behind buying this land is farming. By taking a loan, the farmer bought a land. After a time gap, the farmer thought of selling the land. He divided the land into 51 small sections and stated selling at a high rate with different time gaps. This activity is repetitive by nature as he continued through selling. As per the Court's order the farmer is involved under profit making business. Hence, this profit will be granted as ordinary income and it will be taxed under tax law (Boyle 2016). McCurry Anor v FC of T 98 ATC 4487 In this case, it is noted that a person bought an old house for investing on it. He changed it into three townhouses by reconstructing it in a new way. He did this from the selling point of view. But unfortunately, he could not sell the house due to the poor economy structure at that time. So, he started living in that house to use it. After three years gap, he sold all those three townhouses at a very high price. Then Federal Government had analysed this case minutely. The Government stated that the main intention of the owner of he house was t make a profit out of that investment. This intention will come under basic business activity. So, the received payment from selling that townhouse will be granted as ordinary income (Ronalds and Raper 2012). As per the Australian law, this income will be taxed. References: Aust, A., 2013.Modern treaty law and practice. Cambridge University Press. Boyle, L., 2016. An Australian August Corpus: Why There is Only One Common Law in Australia.Bond Law Review,27(1), p.3. Buchan, J., 2014. Deconstructing the franchise as a legal entity: practice and research in international franchise law.Journal of Marketing Channels,21(3), pp.143-158. Chalmers, J., Carragher, N., Davoren, S. and OBrien, P., 2013. Real or perceived impediments to minimum pricing of alcohol in Australia: public opinion, the industry and the law.International Journal of Drug Policy,24(6), pp.517-523. de Cogan, D., 2015. A changing role for the administrative law of taxation.Social Legal Studies,24(2), pp.251-270. Hattingh, L., Low, J.S. and Forrester, K., 2013.Australian pharmacy law and practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. Howieson, B., Hancock, P., Segal, N., Kavanagh, M., Tempone, I. and Kent, J., 2014. Who should teach what? Australian perceptions of the roles of universities and practice in the education of professional accountants.Journal of Accounting Education,32(3), pp.259-275. Kenyon, A., 2013.Defamation: Comparative law and practice. CRC Press. Lang, M., 2014.Introduction to the law of double taxation conventions. Linde Verlag GmbH. Langton, M. and Longbottom, J. eds., 2012.Community futures, legal architecture: foundations for Indigenous peoples in the global mining boom. Routledge. Maddison, S. and Denniss, R., 2013.An introduction to Australian public policy: theory and practice. Cambridge University Press. Martin, F. and Manwaring, K., 2015. Online Feedback to Students Studying Taxation and Business LawHow Does it Rate?.Journal of the Australasian Tax Teachers Association,10(1). Matsushita, M., Schoenbaum, T.J., Mavroidis, P.C. and Hahn, M., 2015.The World Trade Organization: law, practice, and policy. Oxford University Press. Oats, L. ed., 2012.Taxation: a fieldwork research handbook. Routledge. Ronalds, C. and Raper, E., 2012.Discrimination law and practice. Federation Press. Woellner, R., Barkoczy, S., Murphy, S., Evans, C. and Pinto, D., 2012.Australian taxation law. CCH Australia.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Revivalism Essay Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Revivalism is an reliable Afro-Christian spiritual common people signifier that evolved during the eighteenth to 19th century. Initially. it was the native Baptist Christians who joined forces with the Moravians. and other non-conformist churches to go the precursors of the motion. However. Jamaica was said to hold experienced a spiritual motion called the Great Revival in 1861. which saw the incorporation of much more African keeping in the motion. Pocomania is more African in signifier while Zion is more Christian oriented. Ã¢â¬ [ 1 ] Upon fixing to ship this journey. I was a spot disgruntled that I had to wake up in the wee hours of the forenoon to travel this Ã¢â¬Å"Watt TownÃ¢â¬ jaunt. but I still approached with a unfastened head. though I had an thought of what to anticipate. seeing that I was already acquainted with quite a few Evangelists. Honestly I expected it to be a waste of clip. but upon seeing the family of my friends. while waiting on the coachs which were scheduled to take us on our journey it got easier and easier. we engaged in gags and anthem we swore were Revivalist anthems but Mr. Grey rapidly busted our bubble and told us that those anthems were Pentecostal. We will write a custom essay sample on Revivalism Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Revivalism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Revivalism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We were greeted by a semi-pleasant but slow coach driver. but the vibration in our coach rapidly took our heads off the length of the journey. I view Evangelists as extremely spiritual people who are in melody with liquors with from assorted kingdoms. known as Heaven. Earth and Ground spirit kingdoms. I met with a batch of different Evangelists. but what I found instead interesting was the fact that the nucleus of what they were stating were similar but they were besides many elusive differences. For illustration I met with a adult male. whose name is Joseph Whitter. of the Olivette Seventh twenty-four hours church. nd he seemed to be rather respected in the church community. he blatantly stated at the beginning of the conversation that. Ã¢â¬Å"Revivalism is the lone manner to be savedÃ¢â¬ . we had a long drawn out treatment on what are my personal positions on faith and the gap statement he made. where I told him that I strongly disagree with that statement and I believe that the re is merely one God and peace and love is the ultimate end. which everyone should seek to accomplish. no affair what religion one identifies with. I so met with Miss. Barbara Harper of the same church. Olivette Seventh twenty-four hours church. and she stated that people should travel to any church they want to travel to and make anything that is genuinely delighting to God. when I mentioned what her church brother thought about the same thing. she said that there is no 1 manner to acquire to heaven and that people spend more of their clip in competition with other denominations and faiths instead than giving congratulationss to the most high. I laughed a spot and I was in entire understanding with her statement. We so started to speak about her life. and how she was before she identified that Revivalism was for her. I could see that the motion really helped her and improved her life. before traveling on I thanked her for being so honest and concluding with me. stating her that I would listen to her talk any twenty-four hours for she had a broad and unfastened head and I perfectly hated extremist minded people. who try to coerce their philosophies and beliefs down peoples pharynxs. When we eventually arrived at Watt Town. after our excess long journey I had no thought of what I was approximately to witness. the site was like nil I had seen before. I was greeted by what had seemed to be 100s of people. I discovered that Watt Town was holding what had seemed like an inter -church convention. I saw kids from assorted schools and immature grownups like our egos at that place to see this effort. One of the first things I noticed about the Evangelists was they were have oning different uniforms in different manners and colorss. I wondered and asked why were they dressed like this and a sort lady told me that each church was represented by different uniforms. The seal is the focal point of the church ; this is where the angels are believed to attest themselves. This is the most sacred country of the land and is a welcoming tool. The seal is a dominant characteristic in all evangelist churches because the seal encourages liquors which come and possess the members. enabling them to transport out their plants of healing and worship. It is advised that one should walk around the seal three times to pay regard to the Tribune God. Some seals can be seen with silver coins in them. this is payment to the liquors for their aid. The flags and streamers we saw at the forepart play a really of import function in the revivalism. A tall pole normally marks a resurgence land. The flags on the pole are used to assail go throughing liquors. the attractive force of liquors is really of import to revivalism because they believe in many liquors and that they can be appeased or summoned to help in their daily lives. Each streamer has its ain intent. Green means anything of nature. Blue and white agencies peace. tap love and ruddy bases for the blood of Jesus. Upon embarking to the top of the construction. some pebbles started to rain from a roof top. some hitting my caput. non understanding anything about what was traveling on yet. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take kindly to this. that confused me a bit more than I already was. When a group of us eventually got to the top we noticed the different worship circles/prayer group. and I was pleased by some as I saw some circles which were assorted with members of different churches. this showed me that pride was non an issue and did non impede worship. and the chief end. amplifying the most high. I stood in astonishment right following to two worship circles and I heard assorted choruses. some I had heard before. some I had non. I was familiar with vocals such as Ã¢â¬Å"Madda de great rock got to moveÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Rock oh! Rock sanctum. stone Ohio! Rock holyÃ¢â¬ . Bing a instrumentalist I enjoyed this facet of the jaunt. placing the keys and the chord patterned advances that would travel with their simple but effectual tunes. I noticed that even though their uniforms were different. they had many things in common. I noticed that many of them had caput wraps with assorted pieces of letter paper in the wraps. I laughed at this sight because I thought they were taking notes or something. but as I went on and I learned more I discovered that the pencils. swayers and scissors that I saw resting in their caput wraps had particular significance. The pencils and swayers signifies mending among the followings. the scissors were carried around by a specific set of people. known as the therapists. who use the scissors to literally cut immorality from around the individuals being healed. as demonstrated to us by a immature adult male named Otis. A few of the Evangelists were besides seen transporting around a metre swayer. this was given to people who had been populating a righteous life and who were slated to be married. We saw some people rinsing their face with sugar H2O. this was said to convey clearance and pureness. the supplication shawl was said to stand for the Tribe of Judah. as we learned that. like the Rastafarians there was a batch of African roots in Revivalism besides. and they used ruddy green and gold to place with Ethiopia and Ghana. When I inquired about a lamp I saw an aged adult female transporting about. she said that the lamp besides represents healing and religious visible radiation because evangelists donÃ¢â¬â¢t walk in the darkness. These mending symbols were brought from Africa with the slaves and became an built-in portion of the evangelist healing services. As a consequence the present twenty-four hours evangelist has maintained the pattern. I asked some Evangelists of their existent businesss and from the answers I found out that they were either twenty-four hours workers. higglers or fishermen. ( more than probably belonging to the lower category ) I saw that this must hold contributed to the contemptuous intervention by mainstream and middle/upper category Christians. They consider them to be extremely superstitious. heathen. crude and amusing in ritual behaviours particularly when they suspect them of practising obi. The contempt heaped on the lower category involved in revivalism can be traced to colonialism. Stratification was practiced on the plantation non merely from the position of Whites to none Whites or but besides among the inkinesss. The free slave felt himself above the house slave who felt they were superior to the field slaves and there was farther stratification in that group depending on the pack to which they belong. Seaga. in his Hagiographas in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s explained that Revivalism besides has different degrees within its construction. There is the Leader who is the cardinal figure of importance ; below the leader are the armour carrier. shepherd male child and female parent. The leader is neer normally questioned on the ground for ritual observations. The ritualistic signifiers of Revivalism takes three major signifiers such as supplication meeting. street meeting and rites for specific intents for illustration tabular arraies. communion tables and baths. The meetings are normally opened to the populace. Revivalism is divided into two groups. Zion and Pocomania. Pocomania is more African in signifier while Zion is more Christian oriented. they are referred to as 2 different religious groups the 60 and 61. the 60 spirit ( Zion ) are individuals who believe in merely one God. the Celestial liquors. archangels. saints and angels. Ho are viewed as steadfastly rooted and committed Christian. The 61 ( Pocomania ) spirit comprises of persons who take bids from earth-bound liquors are the Ã¢â¬Å"Fallen AngelsÃ¢â¬ ( demonic powers ) . from God and from The Ground liquors are those of the human dead that are non biblically mentioned. I noticed that the people o f the 60 spirit. look down the 61 in a manner which gave me a feeling of segregation between both of the groups. I noticed that like other Christians. Evangelists besides go on fasting Sessionss but they canÃ¢â¬â¢t merely acquire up and fast they have to be ordered by the holy spirit. Besides apart a Revivalists civilization includes heavy use of flowers they believe that when you place the flowers in H2O and travel to kip you dream see your hereafter. whether it brings devastation or luck. Some of my positions on Evangelists were different after the trip. antecedently I thought that. Revivalists merely went to church like other Christians and the worship was similar but I was mistaken. I besides thought that they used instruments but I discovered that their organic structures were their instruments. stamping and grunting to assist them maintain clip and to supply percussive sounds. In my sentiment the greatest gift Evangelists can give to the Jamaican civilization. is their sense of integrity. holding being bashed for many many old ages. I saw that these people remained strong and stood house for what they believe. That is what many faiths and people of Jamaica need to last through good times and bad. this was what I took off from the journey. and if I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take anything else. I was glad I took this quality from the Revivalists. integrity is strength and they will everlastingly be a changeless reminder of that value.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
A Study of Prejudice in Harper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird Research Paper Example A Study of Prejudice in Harper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird Paper A Study of Prejudice in Harper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird Paper Essay Topic: A Woman Killed With Kindness Literature To Kill a Mockingbird We see in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee an assortment of racial, social, religious and gender prejudice. The narrative is set in the small town of Maycomb, located in Alabama. The era is the early 1930s, a very prejudiced time in the southern states of America. This period of history was also the time of the Great Depression that occurred due to the Wall Street Crash in 1929. This novel is based upon a court case of a black man that is accused of the rape of a white woman. This tale is split up into two different parts. Part one introduces the main characters and portrays the several different prejudices which they both feel and experience. The second part of this novel presents the case of Tom Robinson, the black man. To Kill a Mockingbird focuses predominantly on the subject of racial prejudice throughout its entirety. There were an excessive amount of prejudice people at this time in the southern states. The Civil War ended in 1876, giving the blacks their deserved freedom from slavery. Even though the war had come to a close so long before the story takes place, in the 1930s, racial tension is still very high. There is strain between the blacks and the whites because the blacks legally are not subject to the whites anymore, yet the whites do not want to change their ways of living above the blacks, with the blacks under their authority. Even the small town of Maycomb was greatly overruled by the prejudices of whites; Atticus, his family, and Miss Maudie, are shown as the only unprejudiced people throughout the whole of the Maycomb County. Mr Ewell, the man who accuses Tom Robinson of raping his daughter, is by far the most prejudiced man in the whole novel. We see this right after the trial when Bob Ewell stops Atticus on the post office corner, spits in his face and says, according to Miss Stephanie Crawford, Hed get him if it took the rest of his life. The reader might consider that this doesnt show prejudice, but we see that throughout the novel Bob Ewell hates the unprejudice white people like Atticus. We see later on in the book that Tom Robinson is probably innocent and falsely accused. Because of Mr Ewell accusing Tom and causing his conviction, this eventually brings about the death of Tom. The black community is presented throughout the story in a very positive light. The Finchs maid is a loving, tender-hearted woman, who cares for Jem and Scout, bringing them up as if they were her own children, disciplining them at appropriate times, and giving them a mothers love. Tom Robinson is a very hard-working family man, praised by his employer, that That boys worked for me for eight years and I aint had a speck o trouble outa him. Not a speck. His kindness is shown in his feelings for Mayella Ewell, he felt right sorry for her. After the trial, when Calpurnia brings Atticus into the kitchen the next morning, the kitchen table was loaded with enough food to bury the family, brought by the black community, because they preciate what you did, Mr Finch. Gender prejudice is focused on in this book a great deal less than racial prejudice. Gender prejudice is defined as attributing certain characteristics to one sex or other which is not based on reason or experience. Jem told me I was being a girl, that girls always imagined things. We see that women were treated more as servants and maids than as wives and helpers in the 1930s. They were not allowed to sit on a jury because they were considered too frail. At the beginning of the book, Scout relates, I sat at the little table in the dining room; Jem and Francis sat with the adults at the dinning table. Scout feels that Aunty dislikes her because she isnt enough of a lady. We believe Scouts aunt is unreasonable in her demand on her to sit alone, because at such a young age it is abnormal for a young girl to sit still and try to be a lady. Throughout the novel, Scout is constantly embarrassed by, or embarrasses her aunty because of her continuous tom-boy attitude. The second strongest discrimination that is shown in this story is the social prejudice of Maycomb County. The Ewells are perceived as low down people, because they are poor and dirty and never going to school. They are despised by the middle class almost as much as blacks of Maycomb. Another poor family that is depicted, is the Cunninghams. When Walter Cunningham comes over for dinner, he poured syrup on his vegetables, and meatand probably would have poured it into his milk glass if (Scout) hadnt asked him what the sam hill he was doing. The book displays the Cunninghams as honest and upright people, they never took anything they couldnt pay back but because of their poverty they are looked down upon in the society. One of the Cunninghams sat on the jury during Tom Robinsons trial, in the beginning he was rarin for an outright acquittal. The Radleys, Jem and Scouts next door neighbour, have a son named Arthur Radley but all the children in the neighbourhood call him Boo. There is social prejudice shown here, in that he is not accepted because he is different from most people. The reason the children call him Boo is because for years time no one had seen him and the kids imagined him to be a ghost. There was a incident when Boo was thirty years of age he stabbed his father in the leg with a pair of scissors. Boo was imprisoned in the basement of the county jail until one day his father took him home and he was never seen again. Inside the house lived a malevolent phantom Any stealthy crimes committed in Maycomb were his work. The pecans from the Radley tree fall into the school yard, but they lay untouched because Radley pecans would kill youfolks say he pizened em and put em over on the school side of the fence. This shows how intolerant the county is against Boo, just for one crime he is sent to jail and is never seen again after his father takes him home. No one really knows Boo Radley but he is suspected by all that he is a crook and a killer. This is displayed, one September afternoon, Scout nearly smashes a roly-poly but is stopped by her brother. She asks, Why couldnt I mash him? Jem says, Because they dont bother you. Jem is learning to empathize with others, including Boo. You can shoot all the blue jays you want, but it is a sin to kill a mockingbird. Atticus told the children when they received air rifles. Miss Maudie explained Your father is right, mockingbirds dont do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They dont eat up peoples gardens, dont nest in corncribs, they dont do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. That is way its a sin to kill a mockingbird. Mockingbirds here symbolize both Tom Robinson and Boo Radley. These two persons are harmless to society, yet because of the time and age, they are looked down upon and despised. This is the real sin, because they are not only harmless, but defenceless. Religious prejudice plays a small part in the book, when Cal, the familys black maid, took the children to a black church named First Purchase African M.E. Church. There was a big, tall Black woman called Lula and she objected to Cal bringing Scout and Jem to the black church. Lula wants to know why you bringin white chillum to a nigger church. This shows that the churches are segregated from each other, and that the Black church does not accept white people and the white church does not accept the Black people. We see later on that the children are asked to stay; this is because their father Atticus is not prejudiced and is defending Tom Robinson. The discrimination and intolerance that Harper Lee is really trying to expose is racial prejudice. This book has caused millions of people to consider the effect that racial prejudice really has. Tom Robinson is killed trying to escape from jail, because although Atticus proved that he was innocent, the jury still convicted him. The story ends with Boo finally coming out of his house, to save Jem and Scout from Mr Ewell, who tries to kill them, showing the children that the way that had imagined Boo was wrong. Over-all, this book teaches everyone something important about prejudice and how to live in the world today.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Species Divergence - Essay Example physiology, the mode of interaction with its environment, nutrition regime, etc. While evolutionist ideas may be discerned in several pre-modern scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ ruminations, it was only with the advent of the 18th century Enlightenment that modern evolutionary theories formed, with that of Charles Darwin soon taking the pre-eminent place among them. The formation of currently mainstream version of evolutionary biology was immensely helped by the respective advances in the fields of genetics and molecular biology, which helped define the organic basis for evolutionary processes. From a biological organization point of view, evolution proceeds on a species level, as individuals comprising a species do not themselves evolve over the course of their lifespan. However, the results of their interaction with the environment enable the accumulation of new heritable responses within their genotype structures, giving rise to a process of natural selection. The latter, in its turn, conditions the changes in the speciesÃ¢â¬â¢ phenotype (i.e. the complex of biological features). Natural selection may be properly defined as a gradual process of genetic variation whereby the individuals with most favorable gene combinations are more frequently able to transplant their genes to subsequent generations of a species, so that their descendants will define the face of their species. While natural selection process is individual, being transmitted across a species only indirectly, it is genotype of a species as a whole that it impacts on, so that heritable changes in those individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ genotypes that are favored by natural selection are spread to the subsequent generations of a species as a whole. The mechanisms of natural selection are varied; however, some of them may be assigned more prominent roles in its perpetration. Of those, ecological selection, with an emphasis on fitting with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s biological environment, and sexual selection, with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s fecundity and ability to find prospective sexual partners as a key factor, may be considered the primary ones. In turn, these mechanisms may be sub-divided into more specific methods of selection, with, e.g., ecological selection encompassing the mechanisms of intraspecies competition, kin selection, etc., and sexual selection including those of intrasexual selection, intersexual selection (sexual dimorphism), etc. b. Evidence for biological evolution is manifold and comprises the number of data from different scientific disciplines. Within the context of this essay, five types of this evidence will be examined. Plate tectonics. The discovery of the movements of plates in the 20th century laid to rest the notion of unchangeable nature of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s tectonics, contributing to an idea of natureÃ¢â¬â¢s propensity for change. On a more specific level, Charles LyellÃ¢â¬â¢s studies on the impact of climatological and geological changes on the distribution of species, with specific emphasis on extinct flora, led the researchers to conclude that movements of large land masses lead to conversion of climates, which meant that animal and plant species had to be dynamic entities, the spatial distribution whereof changes in accordance with the changes of topography brought about by geological agents. Consequently, the changes in floras and faunas were decisively connected with the corresponding shifts of land masses, contributing to the development of an idea of ecological selection. Biogeography. The research in the connection between plate tectonics and changes in life on Earth that was referred to above has been directly connected with the research in the field of biogeography. Such scientists as Edward Forbes, Wallace and Willer Matthew conducted an extensive research in the